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Mediterranean Diet Voted Best for 2022: What Do Diabetes Experts Say?

Published: 2/22/22
52 readers recommend
By Lindsay Modglin

mediterranean foodsThe Mediterranean Diet has once again been recognized as one of the best overall. What makes it so special? How can you integrate some of its features into what you are currently eating? We spoke with nutritionists to find out more about how you can benefit from this eating plan.

When U.S. News & World Report unveiled its "Best Diets Overall" for 2022, the Mediterranean Diet beat out 39 others to be named number one —the fifth year in a row it's earned top honors.

But what does the science say? Do people with diabetes benefit from Mediterranean-style eating—or is it just hype? We spoke with top diabetes and nutrition experts to see what they thought, and here's what they told us.

"This eating pattern is based on the traditional eating patterns in the regions around the Mediterranean Sea," says Stacey Simon, registered dietitian and owner of the virtual nutrition practice Stacey Simon Nutrition LLC. "It has been shown to reduce inflammation and risk of stroke, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes."

diaTribe dug into the research to learn more about what a Mediterranean Diet is and how it affects people living with diabetes. Then, we analyzed expert opinions in light of the latest studies to get a view on the pros, cons, and nutritional value of sticking with this eating plan.

What is the Mediterranean Diet?

"The Mediterranean diet offers a variety of options making it less restrictive than other diets and more about abundance rather than deprivation," says Lynn Ward, director of preventative focused care at Compwell.

The diet promotes plant-based foods daily, in place of meats or starches. Healthy fats are also encouraged, such as olive oil instead of butter or margarine. "Limiting animal protein to small amounts of fish and seafood is suggested," adds Ward.

The Mediterranean diet seems like an overall healthy pattern to follow. With benefits to the heart and brain, it's easy to see why U.S. News & World Report's experts gave it the top spot for 2022.

What Are the Mediterranean Diet Benefits?

Eating a plant-based diet can lower your risk for chronic conditions, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. It can also help regulate weight and reduce inflammation.

"Inflammation resulting from lifestyle factors can contribute to a range of health issues, including heart disease and diabetes," says Ward. "Sticking to a Mediterranean-type diet will also likely decrease inflammation over time." Common components of the Mediterranean diet such as produce, legumes, and seafood contain less saturated fat and cholesterol, which can limit inflammation.

"The Mediterranean diet has also been associated with being protective against memory decline," says Simon. Many observational studies have found that following a Mediterranean-style diet is associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.

Mediterranean Diet Foods

"The Mediterranean diet is an eating pattern rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, heart-healthy fats [olive oil, nuts, seeds], and whole grains," explains Simon. "It's low in processed foods, red meat, and dairy products." It also includes moderate amounts of fish, poultry, and eggs.

Approved plant-based foods:

  • Whole grains: whole-grain bread and pasta
  • Vegetables (fresh)
  • Fruits (fresh)
  • Legumes: chickpeas, lentils, and beans
  • Nuts and seeds

Approved healthy fats:

  • Olive oil
  • Fish: Salmon, tuna, mackerel, herring, sardines (excluding fried fish)
  • Fish oils
  • Some nut and seed oils: Flaxseed oil, almond oil,  walnut oil, and hazelnut oil

Foods allowed in moderation:

  • Poultry (up to 4-ounce servings)
  • Eggs
  • Low-fat dairy
  • Red wine: (4) ounces for women and (8) ounces for men

What Foods Should I Avoid?

While this particular diet includes a colorful variety of healthy cuisine, experts recommend certain key foods you should avoid.

You should avoid eating:

  • Refined grains: White bread, white pasta, white rice, and processed flours

  • Processed meats: Sausage, bacon, cold cuts/deli meat, hot dogs/sausages that contain additives or preservatives

  • Red meat: Beef, pork, venison, and veal

  • Processed foods: Pies, cakes, cookies, pizza, sweetened yogurt, most frozen meals, processed cheese

  • Sweets and desserts: Cakes, candies, cookies that contain ingredients that are unnatural or have a long list of ingredients

  • Soda and other sugar-sweetened beverages

  • Trans fats: Margarine, solid shortening, pre-packaged baked goods

  • Alcohol 

What Do the Experts Say About the Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes?

"Research says when eating or drinking less sugar, inflammatory markers in the blood decrease, which decreases the risk of chronic disease” explains Ward. "Choosing the Mediterranean diet as a lifelong way of eating, coupled with caloric restriction, may also result in weight loss."

According to Simon, the Mediterranean diet "is an excellent diet choice for people with diabetes." Several factors make this dietary approach attractive for diabetes management. "This diet limits processed foods and sweets, which are often attributed to poor blood sugar control. It's high in nutritionally balanced foods including whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and healthy fats, all of which promote blood glucose stability."

"The Mediterranean diet is anti-inflammatory in nature, which may help in promoting diabetes management. It also plays a role in insulin secretion and gut microbiota, all of which may play roles in improving blood sugar management.”

7-day Mediterranean Meal Plan for Prediabetes, Diabetes, and Obesity

Maddison Saalinger, registered and licensed dietician at the Diabetes Research Institute Foundation gave diaTribe an exclusive look at this Mediterranean-based meal plan for prediabetes, diabetes, and obesity.

"The main thing to remember is to count your carbohydrates," explains Saalinger. "A tip to counting carbohydrates is to use the exchange list (15g carbohydrates per exchange) or food labels. Measuring cups or food scales can help get these measurements more precise."

Day 1

  • Breakfast: Whole grain bread with avocado and an egg sunny side up

  • Lunch: Tuna salad with arugula, apples, and pumpkin seeds

  • Dinner: Quinoa with roasted veggies and pine nuts

  • Snack: Cottage cheese with pineapple chunks

 

Day 2

  • Breakfast: Oatmeal with mixed nuts and berries 

  • Lunch: Greek salad and lentils

  • Dinner: Grilled lamb, roasted vegetables, and whole wheat pita

  • Snack: Mixed nuts and a small apple

 

Day 3

  • Breakfast: Mediterranean mini frittatas

  • Lunch: Chickpea salad with spinach and goat cheese 

  • Dinner: Orzo salad (include tomatoes and olives), grilled fish, and roasted vegetables

  • Snack: Whole-grain crackers and peanut butter 

 

Day 4

  • Breakfast: Veggie omelet and a whole wheat toast 

  • Lunch: Ground turkey burger (onions, spinach), sweet potato fries (baked), and spinach salad

  • Dinner: Salmon with roasted zucchini and mushrooms, and lentils 

  • Snack: Hummus and baby carrots  

 

Day 5

  • Breakfast: Greek yogurt, berries, and mixed nuts 

  • Lunch: Chicken salad on whole wheat pita  

  • Dinner: Grilled portobello mushroom with tomatoes and mozzarella  

  • Snack: Apple slices and peanut butter 

 

Day 6

  • Breakfast: Peanut butter sandwich 

  • Lunch: Grilled fish and lentils and roasted veggies 

  • Dinner: Spinach salad with grilled chicken and avocado 

  • Snack: Greek yogurt with mixed nuts 

 

Day 7

  • Breakfast: Overnight oats (oatmeal, almond milk, peanut butter, chia seeds) and berries to top 

  • Lunch: Turkey sandwich on whole-wheat bread, cucumbers, spinach, alfalfa sprouts, and feta

  • Dinner: Lentil pasta, grilled shrimp, and spinach 

  • Snack: Pistachios and apple 

The Verdict: Mediterranean Diet for Diabetes May Be Effective

Based on the research and expert opinion of Ward, Simon, and Saalinger, it's clear that the benefits of a Mediterranean-based diet extend beyond weight loss and blood sugar management.

"The Mediterranean diet really isn't a diet, per se. Rather, it's a balanced eating pattern that can meet all of our nutrition needs from real, whole foods—rather than relying on supplements," Simon says.

"I consider this to be an extremely healthy style of eating with many benefits. I also feel this diet can be modified and adapted for many dietary needs and is a wonderful starting point for building healthy habits."

Whether you're living with prediabetes, diabetes, or just trying to lose weight and prevent disease, the Mediterranean diet may be worth your attention.

About the authors

Lindsay Modglin is a nurse, writer, and digital marketing expert for the healthcare industry. She holds a professional certificate in Scientific Writing from Stanford University School of Medicine. As a... Read the full bio »

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