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Advisory Board

Charles M. Alexander, MD, FACP, FACE is an endocrinologist who has more than 35 years of experience in diabetes – in both direct care and research. Since 2016, he has provided advisory services to pharmaceutical and medical device companies. Dr. Alexander retired from Merck in 2015 after nearly 25 years in both Outcomes Research and Medical Affairs. Prior to joining Merck, he practiced diabetes, endocrinology and internal medicine in Los Angeles for ten years and was Clinical Professor of Medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California (KSOM/USC). Dr. Alexander has been a member of Penn Medicine’s Institute for Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism (IDOM) Leadership Council since 2016, and an advisor for the diaTribe Foundation since 2016. Dr. Alexander received his medical degree from KSOM/USC where he completed his postgraduate training in internal medicine and diabetes/endocrinology. Dr. Alexander is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Endocrinology-Metabolism and is a Fellow of both the American College of Physicians and the American College of Endocrinology. He is the author of numerous scientific articles and a frequent reviewer for medical journals.

Richard M. Bergenstal, MD, is Executive Director of the International Diabetes Center, and an endocrinologist at the Park Nicollet Clinic in Minneapolis. He is also a Clinical Professor at the University of Minnesota and in 2010 was the American Diabetes Association’s President of Medicine & Science. He did his medical and endocrine training at the University of Chicago and has served as a principal investigator in key research studies in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, particularly related to preventing the complications of diabetes. In 2007, he received the ADA's Outstanding Physician Clinician in Diabetes award, among the highest honors in diabetes. Dr. Bergenstal is particularly well known for his work in CGM and on the importance of standardizing CMG metrics and data display to facilitate improved self-management and clinical decision making. Dr. Bergenstal led the first large trial to show the effectiveness of using glucose sensors and insulin pumps in combination. He was also led the evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of the first FDA-approved artificial pancreas. He is focused on seeing that advances like CMG and artificial pancreas actually get effectively integrated into specialty and primary care clinics.

Jennifer Block, RN, CDE is a certified diabetes educator working in pediatric endocrinology at Stanford University. She is currently doing research on the artificial pancreas. Jennifer has type 1 diabetes.

Zachary Bloomgarden, MD is a clinician in provate practice and a Clinical Professor of Medicine at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City. He works in the American Diabetes Association as a member of the Editorial Board and has served as an Associate Editor of the clinical journal of Diabetes Care for many years. He has also served on the Board of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the Journals Managing Subcommittee of the Endocrine Society, and the Editorial Board of Diabetes Care, has been principal investigator in numerous studies, and is a reviewer for many journals. Currently, as the Editor of the Journal of Diabetes, he writes frequent commentaries addressing various aspects of treatment. In 2012, Dr. Bloomgarden was awarded the title of Master of the American College of Endocrinology. He has been listed for many years in the “Castle Connolly Guide: The Best Doctors New York Metro Area” and the New York Times “SuperDoctors.” 

Dr. Bruce Bode, MD, FACE is a diabetes specialist with Atlanta Diabetes Associates in Atlanta, Georgia. He is very well known for his large, thriving insulin pump practice and his research in this field.

Dr. Nancy Bohannon, MD is a San Francisco-based endocrinologist who specializes in new diabetes drugs and technology in her research and private practice.

Bruce Buckingham, MD is a Professor Emeritus of Pediatrics and Endocrinology at Stanford University. He is known for his research with DirecNET in particular and his extensive research on continuous monitoring and the artificial pancreas is world-renowned. He has been working on several NIH multicenter collaborative studies testing in home closed-loop control in addition to doing long-term longitudinal studies of MRI and neurocognitive changes in children with diabetes.

John Buse, MD, PhD is a professor at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine in Chapel Hill, North Carolina and a past President, Medicine & Science at the American Diabetes Association. He serves as the Chief of the Division of Endocrinology, Director of the Diabetes Care Center, and Executive Associate Dean for Clinical Research. Dr. Buse has extensively researched type 1 and type 2 diabetes, including involvement with multiple CVOTs in addition to ACCORD, GRADE, STOPP-T2D, NAVIGATOR, ORIGIN, IRIS, TECOS, FREEDOM and Trialnet trials. Dr. Buse has received a number of awards, including recognition as one of the best clincians in the country.

Wayman W. Cheatham, MD, FACE is the Former Special Assistant to the Surgeon General for Clinical Research and Director, Clinical Investigation Programs in Washington, D.C. He has been responsible for many large clinical trials in the areas of diabetes and obesity over the course of his career and has extensive experience in drug development. Dr. Cheatham has type 2 diabetes.

Dr. Edward Damiano, PhD is an Associate Professor of Biomedical Engineering at Boston University. His expertise and training are in the areas of mechanical and biomedical engineering, applied mechanics, and applied mathematics. Ever since his 14-year-old son was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at 11 months of age, he has been committed to creating and integrating closed-loop control technologies with a vision of building a bionic endocrine pancreas by the time his son heads off to college in the fall of 2017.

Dr. Michael Dougan, MD, PhD is an internal medicine resident at Massachusetts General Hospital with a longstanding interest in science education. He received his MD and PhD from Harvard Medical School, where his research focused on immune modulation and chronic inflammation.

Dr. Steve Edelman, MD is a professor of Medicine in the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism at the University of California, San Diego. He is Director of the Diabetes Care Clinic at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in San Diego as well as the founder and director of Taking Control of Your Diabetes (TCOYD). In 2009, he was named Educator of the Year at the American Diabetes Association Scientific Sessions.

Satish K. Garg, MD is a Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics at the Young Adult Clinic at the Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes at the University of Colorado School of Medicine at the Anschutz Medical Campus, in Aurora, Colorado and the Editor-In-Chief of Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics Journal. He is a prolific researcher with over 315 original manuscripts in peer-review journals and is considered a leading expert in early detection of diabetes, evaluating new glucose sensors, closed-loop systems, and multiple diagnostic and therapeutic tools and therapies, including insulin analogs and alternate ways to deliver insulin and possible adjunctive therapies for T1D in particular.

Dr. James R. Gavin III, M.D., Ph.D is a Professor of Medicine at the Emory University School of Medicine and a Clinical Professor of Medicine at the Indiana University School of Medicine.  Additionally, he was the President of the Morehouse School of Medicine from 2002-2004.  He is the Chief Medical Officer and Chief Executive Officer of Healing our Village, a health communication corporation that specializes in targeted advocacy, training, education, and outreach for health care professionals and minority communities. He has published more than 200 articles and abstracts in such publications as Science, Journal of Applied Physiology, Diabetes, and the American Journal of Physiology.

Barry H. Ginsberg, MD, PhD is the CEO of Diabetes Technology Consultants and a former Vice President at the Worldwide Medical Affairs for the Diabetes Division of Becton Dickinson. He is an expert in blood glucose monitoring and drug delivery. Dr. Ginsberg has served on the Board of Directors of the American Diabetes Association, acting as the President of the Board of Directors of the ADA (Iowa Affiliate).

Dr. Barry J. Goldstein, MD, PhD, FACE has over 25 years of experience in diabetes in clinical and basic R&D in academia and industry. He is the Vice President and Global Therapeutic Area Head for Cardiovascular, Metabolic, Diabetes, Endocrinology and Renal disease, at Covance, Inc. Dr. Goldstein received his MD/PhD degrees from the University of Rochester, completed research and clinical fellowships at the Joslin Diabetes Center and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and spent 16 years as Professor and Division Chief for Endocrinology and Diabetes at Jefferson Medical College. Prior to joining Covance, he served at Merck Research Laboratories as VP and TA Area Head for Diabetes & Endocrinology. Dr. Goldstein is an elected member of the ASCI and AAP, a past Associate Editor of Diabetes and the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, and has served on grant review panels for NIH, ADA, JDRF, and industry scientific advisory panels. His contributions to the literature include more than 220 papers, editorials, monographs, book chapters and co-editorships. 

Jeff Halpern is a strategic consumer and product marketer with over 25 years of experience in marketing consumer packaged goods, high technology, and medical devices. He is currently Senior Director of Marketing, Sensor Platform for Abbott Diabetes Care. Prior to joining Abbott, Jeff worked in brand management at The Clorox Company. He holds an A.B. from Brown University and an M.B.A. from Stanford University Graduate School of Business. Jeff has type 1 diabetes.

Lutz Heinemann, PhD is the Spokesperson of the Board of Stakeholders at Profil Institute for Metabolic Research in Neuss, Germany. He is involved in numerous studies with patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and is known as a global expert on diabetes technology.

Debbie Hinnen, MN, ARNP, BC-ADM, CDE, FAAN is a noted diabetes educator from Kansas with the Mid-America Diabetes Associates. She has served as the president of the American Association of Diabetes Educators and is involved with much new product development.

Dr. Irl Hirsch, MD is a professor of medicine in the division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition at the University of Washington. He is well known for his research on insulin and glycemic variability, among other topics. Dr. Hirsch has type 1 diabetes.

Jeff Hitchcock is the President and Founder of Children with Diabetes, Inc.(CWD) one of the largest diabetes-related web sites in the world. CWD offers education and support to families living with type 1 diabetes through its web site and its conferences. Of note is its national Friends for Life conference held each year. He is particularly inspired by his daughter Marissa, who has type 1 diabetes. In addition to his work at CWD, Jeff is involved in programs with the T1D Exchange, various advocacy groups, and is a sought-after speaker at national and international conferences on the impact of type 1 diabetes on families.

Philip Home, MA, DPhil, DM, FRCP trained in medicine at Oxford University and is currently Professor Emeritus of Diabetes Medicine at Newcastle University, UK. Dr. Home has published over 480 papers, books and reviews on aspects of diabetes. He was Editor of Diabetic Medicine and active on many medical editorial boards. Dr. Home has been chairman of global and national (UK) diabetes guideline groups, has advised extensively on new diabetes therapies, and has assisted in diabetes developments in countries on six continents. He lectures internationally on aspects of diabetes management.

Francine Kaufman, MD is Chief Medical Officer at Senseonics, a medical technology company focused on the development and commercialization of a long-term, implantable continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system for people with diabetes. Dr. Kaufman is a pediatric endocrinologist and has served as director of the Comprehensive Childhood Diabetes Center, and head of the Center for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at Children’s Hospital in Los Angeles. Dr. Kaufman is also a Distinguished Professor Emerita of Pediatrics and Communications at the Keck School of Medicine and the Annenberg School of Communications of the University of Southern California. She was former president of the American Diabetes, chair of the National Diabetes Education Program and elected to the National Academy of Medicine. She also served as Chief Medical Officer and Vice President of Global Clinical, Regulatory and Medical Affairs at Medtronic Diabetes. Dr. Kaufman is the author of over 250 scientific manuscripts and numerous books.

Dr. David M. Kendall, MD is the Chief Scientific and Medical Officer of the American Diabetes Association. Prior to his appointment to the ADA, he was the Medical Director and Chief of Clinical and Professional Services at the International Diabetes Center in Minneapolis, MN. An active diabetes researcher, educator and clinician, Dr. Kendall has both clinical and laboratory based research interests. His clinical studies focus on the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular complications of diabetes while his laboratory research centers on emerging treatments for diabetes, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. He is particularly well known for his research on emerging incretin-based therapies for type 2 diabetes.

Dr. Boris Kovatchev, PhD is Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences and Adjunct Professor of Systems and Information Engineering, University of Virginia. Charlottesville, Virginia, Head of Section Computational Neuroscience, and Director of the University of Virginia Center for Diabetes Technology. He received Ph.D. in Mathematics (Probability and Statistics) from Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski,” Bulgaria. Kovatchev has a 18-year track record in translational diabetes research and is the recipient of the Diabetes Technology Leadership Award for 2008. He is the author of 123 peer-reviewed scientific publications, and holds 36 U.S. and international patents and 62 patents currently pending. In 2011 he was named UVA Edlich-Henderson Inventor of the Year.

Dr. Aaron Kowalski, PhD is the Director of Strategic Research Projects of the Juvenile Diabetes Research Fund, an organization dedicated to finding a cure for diabetes. He leads the efforts of the Artificial Pancreas Project at JDRF. Dr. Kowalski has type 1 diabetes.

Davida F. Kruger, MSN, APN-BC, BC-ADM has been a certified nurse practitioner in diabetes for more than 35 years at Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, Michigan, where she is involved in both clinical practice and research. She is board certified by the American Nurses Association Credentialing Center in Primary Care and by the American Association of Diabetes Educators in Advanced Diabetes Management. Ms. Kruger has served as past Chair of the American Diabetes Associations Research Foundation and has served on the American Diabetes Association's Research Policy Committee. She also served as the Editor-In-Chief of Clinical Diabetes from 2011-2016 and an editor for Diabetes Spectrum from 2005-2008. A principal investigator on numerous diabetes care research projects, she is widely published, including authoring the book The Diabetes Travel Guide and has been honored by numerous awards including the Florence Nightingale award for excellence in research, ADA’s Rachmeil Levine Award for Distinguished Service,  Ada’s Award for Outstanding Service in Diabetes Research Funding, The ADA Wendell May’s Award, The 2014 Clara Ford Award for Nursing Excellence in Research and Education, the 2017 International Diabetes Center Donnell Etzwiler Memorial Award, and The American Diabetes Association 2017 Outstanding  Educator in Diabetes Award.   

Dr. Harold Lebovitz, MD is Professor of Medicine in the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism at the State University of New York (SUNY) Health Science Center at Brooklyn. He has served on numerous review committees for the American Diabetes Association, the National Institutes of Health, and the Veterans Administration, and serves on the editorial boards of Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, and Diabetes Care.

Dr. Anne Peters, MD is a Professor of Clinical Medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California where she runs diabetes centers in well-served West Los Angeles and underserved East Los Angeles. Dr. Peters earned her medical degree at the University of Chicago, completed an internal medicine internship at Stanford University, and an endocrinology fellowship at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. She previously directed the clinical diabetes programs at Cedars-Sinai and UCLA. She has published over 200 articles and four books. She has worked extensively on writing clinical guidelines for the treatment of people with both T1 and T2 diabetes through the ADA and EASD. Her research interests are diverse and currently include use of technology and non-insulin therapies for people with T1D. She received the American Diabetes Association Outstanding Physician Clinician Award and the Bernardo Houssay Award from the National Minority Quality Forum.

William H. Polonsky, PhD, CDE is the Co-Founder of the Behavioral Diabetes Institute, the world’s first organization wholly dedicated to studying and addressing the unmet psychological aspects people of diabetes. He is also an Associate Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Polonsky has served as Senior Psychologist at the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston, faculty member at Harvard Medical School and Chairman of the National Certification Board for Diabetes Educators. Dr. Polonsky received the American Diabetes Association’s 2020 Outstanding Educator in Diabetes Award and in 2014, received the American Diabetes Association’s Richard R. Rubin Award for distinguished contributions to behavioral medicine and psychology. Dr. Polonsky has served on the editorial board of multiple journals including Diabetes Care, Diabetes Forecast, Clinical Diabetes, Diabetes Self-Management and Diabetes Health.

Michael Robinton is the founder and Executive Director of Insulin Pumpers (www.insulin-pumpers.org), a large online forum for pump users.

Dr. Francesco Rubino, MD is the Chief of Gastrointestinal Metabolic Surgery, an Associate Professor of Surgery, and an Associate Attending Surgeon at New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center. Dr. Rubino is a pioneer in the emerging field of surgery for type 2 diabetes. He leads the Diabetes Surgery Center at the New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center, the first academic-based diabetes surgery center in the United States, and is considered the leading expert in surgery for type 2 diabetes. Dr. Rubino is the author of more than 70 articles in peer-reviewed journals and 20 book chapters.

Dr. Steven Jon Russell, MD, PhD is an Assistant Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and an Attending Physician at Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Russell earned his MD and PhD at University of Texas Southwestern Medical School and did his residency and fellowship at Massachusetts General Hospital. He is certified in Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism. Dr. Russell is a principal investigator in a collaborative group of investigators from Massachusetts General Hospital and Boston University who are working to make automated blood glucose control a reality. He is active in a number of professional societies and is a reviewer for several journals including The New England Journal of Medicine, Diabetes, and Diabetes Care.

Jane Jeffrie Seley, DNP MSN MPH is Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at Weill Cornell Medicine. She is a nurse practitioner who is board certified in diabetes care and education, advanced diabetes management and as a diabetes technology clinician. Jane served on the 2018-2020 scientific sessions planning committee for the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and is an editor for ADA’s Diabetes Spectrum, the Journal of Diabetes Science & Technology, Current Diabetes Reports and BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care. Dr. Seley is an active researcher, speaker, and author who is committed to patient & professional education, innovative patient-centered diabetes care and education strategies, and advancing diabetes technology as a tool to assist people living with diabetes and the clinicians that care for them.

Dr. Arya Sharma, M.D., Ph.D is a Professor of Medicine & Chair in Obesity Research and Management at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. He is also the Clinical Co-Chair of the Alberta Health Services Obesity Program. Dr. Sharma is founder and Scientific Director of the Canadian Obesity Network, a network of over 6000 obesity researchers, health professionals and other stakeholders. He has authored and co-authored more than 300 scientific articles and has lectured widely on the etiology and management of obesity and related cardiovascular disorders. He is the Past-President of the Canadian Association of Bariatric Physicians and Surgeons

Jay Skyler, MD is a Professor of Medicine, Pediatrics & Psychology in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine. He is Deputy Director of Clinical Research and Academic Programs at the Diabetes Research Institute. Dr. Skyler also serves on the Board of Directors at Dexcom, a company that develops, manufactures and distributes continuous glucose monitoring systems. His research interests are in the clinical aspects of diabetes, particularly improving the care of type 1 diabetes through glycemic control, psychosocial and behavioral support, immune intervention and beta cell expansion. Dr. Skyler also served as Study Chairman for the NIH (NIDDK)-sponsored Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) and Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet, a nationwide and global network conducting clinical trials to prevent type 1 diabetes. He is widely acclaimed for developing “algorithms” for patient adjustment of insulin doses. Dr. Skyler is a past President of the American Diabetes Association, the International Diabetes Immunotherapy Group, and the Southern Society for Clinical Investigation, and was a Vice President of the International Diabetes Federation.

Virginia Valentine, CNS, BC-ADM, CDE is the CEO of Diabetes Network in New Mexico and the 2006 recipient of the American Association of Diabetes Educators Distinguished Service Award. Virginia has type 2 diabetes.

Dr. Robert A. Vigersky, MD is the Director of the Diabetes Institute of the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland and Professor of Medicine at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. He trained in Internal Medicine at The Johns Hopkins Hospital completed an Endocrine Fellowship at National Institutes of Health. Between stints in the Army, he spent 15 years in private practice and served as the Medical Director of the Diabetes Treatment Center at Georgetown University Hospital and the Washington Hospital Center. He has received numerous military awards and represents the Department of Defense on the Advisory Council of the NIDDK. He was the recipient of the Leadership Award of the Diabetes Technology Society in 2011 and the Thurman Award for Excellence in Telemedicine and Advanced Technology in 2012. He has over 120 publications in the fields of reproductive endocrinology and diabetes. 

W. Kenneth Ward, MD is the Board Chairman and co-founder of Pacific Diabetes Technologies, a company that has developed a subcutaneous catheter that can be used not only as an insulin conduit but also to continuously measure glucose. This innovation reduces the number of devices needed by people on insulin. Dr. Ward was the Chief Scientific Officer of iSense, a company acquired by Bayer that is focused on the development of continuous glucose monitoring devices. With 75 original articles, seven book chapters and 11 review articles, Dr. Ward is well known for his work on glucose sensors and the artificial pancreas. He and his colleagues became the first group ever to publish work on the use of both insulin and glucagon, another important hormone involved in regulating blood glucose levels, in a closed loop system in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Dr. Ward has been awarded 26 patents and has three patents pending.

Hope Warshaw, MMSc, RD, CDE, BC-ADM, is a diabetes nutrition consultant, freelance writer and diabetes care and education specialist in Northern Virginia. She’s the author of several books published by ADA and has written consumer articles for diabetes magazines including Diabetes Self-Management and Diabetes Forecast. Ms. Warshaw owns a consulting practice, Hope Warshaw Associates, LLC, in Asheville, North Carolina. She has served as the President of ADCES (formerly the American Association of Diabetes Educators) and is currently the secretary of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Foundation board.

Dr. Howard Wolpert, MD is the director of the Insulin Pump Program and a clinical investigator at the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston as well as an instructor of medicine at Harvard Medical School.

Dr. Mark Yarchoan, MD is an internal medicine resident at the University of Pennsylvania with an interest in diabetes care and metabolic disease. He has been a long-standing contributor and editor of diaTribe and has reported on numerous diabetes and obesity conferences. He recently graduated from the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine.

Gloria Yee, RN, CDE is a certified diabetes educator at the Diabetes Teaching Center at the University of California San Francisco. Her research focuses on diabetes technology. Gloria has type 1 diabetes.

Professor Paul Zimmet, MD is a Professor of Medicine at Monash University and a director at the International Diabetes Institute both in Melbourne, Australia. The "Endo of Oz" is also co-Chair of the IDF Task Force on Epidemiology. He also serves on the Australian Government's Strategic Taskforce on Diabetes.

Bernie Zinman, OC, MDCM, FRCPC, FACP, is a Professor of Medicine at the University of Toronto and the Stephen and Suzie Pustil Diabetes Research Scientist at the Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada. His main research interests include long-term complications of diabetes mellitus, the evaluation of new therapies for type 1 and type 2 diabetes, diabetes in Aboriginal communities, and studies directed at the prevention of diabetes. Dr. Zinman has received numerous awards including the Charles H. Best Medal for Distinguished Service in the Cause of Diabetes, the Alois Beringer Lecture Award, the Frederick G. Banting Award and the Gerald S. Wong Service Award of the Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA). In 2009 he was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award from the CDA and the Novartis Prize in Diabetes and in 2011 was appointed to the Order of Canada, in recognition of his achievements in diabetes patient care and research. In May 2012, he received the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal and in 2019 was promoted to Officer in the Order of Canada. In 2020 Dr. Zinman received the Outstanding Achievement in Clinical Diabetes Research Award from the ADA. For the past 3 years, Thomson Reuters has ranked Dr. Zinman as among the top 1% of researchers cited in their specific field.

Dr. Howard Zisser, MD is the Director of Clinical Research and Diabetes Technology at Sansum Diabetes Research Institute in Santa Barbara, California and serves Adjunct Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of California, Santa Barbara. His research interests focus on the testing of new drugs and devices to treat diabetes. He has directed numerous clinical trials and investigator-initiated studies involving type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes, including pivotal testing of implanted glucose sensors, implanted insulin pumps, inhaled insulin, oral insulin, and continuous glucose sensing in pregnancy.